High Intensity Intervall Training? Ja, aber… (Teil 1)

High Intensity Intervall Training (HIIT) ist einer DER aktuellen Fitnesstrends 2014 schlechthin. Die Grundidee hinter dieser Trainingsmethode ist es, durch kurze und intensive Intervalleinheiten vergleichbare oder gar bessere Trainingseffekte zu erzielen, als mit den üblicherweise längeren Trainingseinheiten eines moderaten Ausdauertrainings.

HIIT ist nicht gleich HIT

HIIT bezieht sich auf optimal steuerbare Ausdauerbelastungen wie Joggen oder Indoor Cycling und ist somit nicht dasselbe wie ein High Intensity Training (HIT) im Kraftbereich. Logisch, könnte man meinen. Aber leider scheint diese grundlegende Tatsache bei vielen Produzenten hausgemachter und leider auch professioneller Fitness Videos noch nicht angekommen zu sein. Da wird wild und bunt gemischt was das Fitness-Zeug hergibt! Athletisch anspruchsvolle Kraftübungen mit Zusatzgewichten werden mit noch komplexeren Sprungübungen verbunden und das Ganze wird ohne Skrupel, dafür mit einem zahngebleichten Dauerlächeln als HIIT vermarktet.

Vorsicht vor Halbwissen im Internet

Natürlich sind diese Produkte nicht die Referenz, aber sie haben durch ihre gefällige Aufbereitung eine grosse Breitenwirkung. Erfahrungsgemäss fällt uns natürlich leichter über Youtube Filmchen zu gucken als wissenschaftliche Studien zu bearbeiten. Das ist verständlich, führt aber leider oft dazu, dass sich Halbwissen oder schlichtweg falsche Fakten mit wenig Widerspruch im Internet verbreiten. Beispiele dazu gibt’s viele. Die Fettverbrennung beginnt erst nach 30 Minuten? Blödsinn! Wer viel Bauch trainiert wird schlank um die Taille. Mumpitz! Ich muss dazu mal einen eigenen Beitrag verfassen – ist gespeichert. Aber zurück zum HIIT!

Die Wurzeln des HIIT

Die ursprüngliche Idee eines HIIT basiert auf einem Ausdauer-Testprotokoll, welches bereits in den 70er Jahren angewendet wurde. Dabei liess man Leistungssportler(!) auf einem Velo während 30 Sekunden auf einer maximalen Intensität (90% der maximalen Sauerstoffaufnahmefähigkeit VO2 max.) in die Pedale treten. Danach folgte eine Erholungsphase von 4min. Dieser Wechsel wurde 4-6mal wiederholt, was zusammengerechnet 2-3 Minuten im hoch intensiven Bereich und 15-25min im Erholungsbereich ergibt. Insgesamt nur 30min Training mit wenigen anstrengenden Spitzen, das klingt super! Gerade in unserer Leistungsgesellschaft, in der Zeit ein kostbares Gut darstellt.

Es funktioniert, keine Frage!

Die positiven Effekte eines HIIT sind wissenschaftlich erhärtet und durch eine Vielzahl von Studien gesichert. Darunter finden sich so tolle Dinge wie

  • Reduktion von Unterhautfett und speziell auch von Bauchfett
  • Verbesserung der VO2 max. (Messwert für Ausdauerleitungsfähigkeit)
  • Zunahme der Insulinsensitivität (Erklärung folgt in einem weiteren Beitrag…)
  • Erhöhter Kalorienverbrauch im Vergleich mit moderatem Ausdauertraining
  • Nachbrenneffekt durch erhöhte Fettoxidation nach dem Training

Ergibt sich nun daraus ein Freipass für ein HIIT für alle? Lesen Sie mehr dazu im Teil 2.

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